Formal Agreement Or Treaty Between Two Or More Nations To Cooperate For Specific Purposes

At the end of the 19th century, a new level of alliance building was reached in Europe, when hostility between Germany and France polarized Europe into two rival alliances. In 1910, most of the major European states were part of one of these great opposing alliances: the central powers, whose main members were Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the allies composed of France, Russia and Great Britain. This bipolar system had a destabilizing effect, as the conflict between two members of the opposing blocs led to the threat of a general war. Finally in 1914 a dispute between Russia and Austria Hungary led their colleagues from the bloc rapidly into the general conflict, the First World War (1914-18). The outcome of the war was effectively decided when the United States abandoned its traditional isolationism to join the Allied side in 1917 as one of the “associated powers”. A country that works with another country to help each other, especially in a war, are official agreements or commitments between two or more countries. An agreement between two countries is described as “bilateral,” while an agreement between several countries is “multilateral.” Countries bound by an international convention are generally referred to as “parties.” When heads of state or government negotiate a treaty, they discuss it before reaching an agreement; And when they ratify a treaty, they give it their formal agreement, usually through the signing or vote of the Treaty on the European Union: an agreement reached in 1991 in the Dutch city of Maastricht, where the Member States of the European Union have agreed on plans for their future, including economic union and the introduction of the single currency. In addition to treaties, there are other less formal international agreements. These include efforts such as the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) and the G7 Global Partnership Against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Although the PSI has a “declaration of prohibition principles” and the G7 Global Partnership includes several statements by G7 heads of state and government, it also does not have a legally binding document that sets specific obligations and is signed or ratified by member states. These three countries soon formed the axis, an offensive alliance that fought for world domination during World War II with a defence alliance of Great Britain, France, China and, from 1941, the Soviet Union and the United States. With the defeat of the Axis powers in 1945, the victorious Allies founded the United Nations (UN), a global organization dedicated to the principles of collective security and international cooperation.

However, the United Nations coexisted ineffectively with the robust military alliances formed by the United States and the Soviet Union after the war in strict ideological lines. In 1949, the United States and Canada joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) with Britain and other Western European countries, and in 1955, the Soviet Union and its Central and Eastern European satellites formed the Warsaw Pact after West Germany joined NATO.

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